Food manufacturing losses arise from the following:
3) waiting time
4) accumulation of work in process
7) unnecessary motion
The following was discussed by our lecturer, Mr. Bing Montes. Now I am trying to give explanations in my own words.
1) Waste arising from overproduction - Producers of perishable goods should plan production schedules and volume according to customers demand. Unsold cassava cakes today might be spoiled by tomorrow. Products that should be converted to sales are gone to waste.
Fruits and vegetables are also vulnerable to waste due to overproduction.
2) Waste arising from defects – When receiving mango for production, it passes through a sorter. Each size category are priced differently, smallest having the cheapest price. Then it passes again on a long conveyor belt. A series of quality assurance staffs are lined and removing defective mangoes.
The company will pay only to good mangoes. Defective mangoes are not fit for processing (not always true). Those are just waste if not sorted out properly.
3) Waste arising from waiting time – Time is gold so it should be spent wisely. Office hours are 8am-12pm and 1pm to 5pm. A dishonest worker usually works under-time or takes a long rest during break-time. Every hour unwisely spent is consider as waste from operation. If the expected output of one employee is 500 pieces, then skipping work hours can reduce it down to 300. The 200 pieces deficit are losses.
4) Waste arising from accumulation of work in process. – Losses occur when too many works are assigned to few personnel, a sudden surge in order volume, peak season or the staffs are not efficient enough to do the job.
5) Waste arising from transport – Land slides along Kenon Road delay the transport of vegetables from Benguet province to Manila markets. Delay causes spoilage of vegetables especially if the vehicle is not equipped with cooling system.
Other losses cause by transport are inadequate handling, improper packaging, damaged shelves and lack of cold feature.
6) Waste arising from process – There are natural losses in processing. Examples: peels of mango, pineapple and banana. Waste product can still be used like converting banana peels to wine and vinegar. Another good idea is collecting excess fats from commercial bacon manufacturing then processing it to butter.
7) Waste arising from unnecessary motion – The following actions are not allowed in food processing area: 1) talking 2) coughing and sneezing 3) spitting 4) eating and drinking and 5) leaving the post of duty. Insisting to do the mentioned actions could result in product contamination and spoilage. Leaving post of duty may result in product damage, burnt product or improperly cook food.